hell: a final word, reviewed (part 2)

 

Understanding the Bible is not a simple matter. Contrary to how I was first taught, not just “anyone with one eye and half sense can quickly understand it.” Indeed, there is little that is truly “simple” about it.

Of course, a great deal of the difficulty comes from the many misunderstandings that surround it. No small amount of my life has consisted of shedding false understandings. What I was told the Bible taught and what I found it to actually teach has often been two very different things. This has been true of topics as widely varied as divorce and remarriage, just war, poverty, and the work of the Holy Spirit, not to mention the very character of God himself.

However, coming to awareness that there was actually a decided difference between my understanding of a matter and that of Scripture has often not been a quick or easy matter. In most instances, it has taken years of study and prayer, coupled with people crossing my path and challenging my thinking, to change my views. For some of those changes in perspective I have paid a personal price, sometimes quite high, but it has led to a clarity and grounding in my conscience that is priceless.

My development in understanding the ultimate end of the wicked has followed this same difficult path and I know that I am not alone in this matter. Further, I know there are many Christians who remain secretly – and needlessly – tormented and unsettled on this subject. And why? Precisely because it touches on the character of God and the nature of human beings.

Though it may come as a surprise to some, there are a variety of views of hell among those who claim faith in Christ and who hold to the Bible as God’s communication with humankind. These views fall essentially into three categories: the traditionalist perspective, the universalist position, and the conditionalist (aka: annihilationist) understanding.

The traditionalist perspective is dominant. It’s understanding of hell is that those who will not submit to, and are, therefore, not saved by Christ, will suffer everlasting torment in hell. Hell is for people and people will quite literally be tortured there by fire forever.

Universalists take the opposite position, that no human will be tormented in hell forever, for all will ultimately be saved by God. Rob Bell’s recent book Love Wins (HarperOne, 2011) is perhaps the best known recent description of, and argument for, the universalist view.

While these two views might seem to cover all of the bases, there is, however, a third view, the conditionalist (aka: annihilationist) understanding of things. The conditionalist’s perspective is that while God will certainly and actively punish the wicked, they will ultimately suffer the ultimate punishment, being annihilated. The wicked will, one day, entirely cease to exist.

Here, allow me to introduce a personal note. Though my parents were not Christians, I was raised to believe that there is a God, that there is only one God, and that this one God is very good. Though it was not the evidence offered to me by my parents, the evidence for such that proved most persuasive for me on these matters was found in creation itself. Nature spoke, and still speaks, volumes to me of God.

Across the years, only two things have seriously challenged my belief in such a God and one of those was the teaching and preaching on hell to which I was exposed in church when I began my journey with Christ. What I was taught the Bible said about hell came across as a strong contradiction of the character of the God I thought I had come to know, and continued to seek through the Scriptures.

My personal conflict, my secret quandary, was completely resolved upon the publication (1982) and my reading (about 1986) of Edward Fudge’s book The Fire That Consumes. Words simply cannot express my elation upon my discovery and digestion of this work. It’s description and development of the conditionalist perspective of God and Scripture not only fully addressed all of my questions, but did so in a compelling way. Now in its third edition, that book continues to provide strong light and guidance for me on the subject that challenged my heart and mind so early on in my walk with God’s Spirit. I owe Edward William Fudge a debt I can never repay and few days go by that I do not thank God for this brother of mine in Christ.

However, for years I’ve longed for the essence of that large volume, The Fire That Consumes, to be distilled into a much briefer and more readily readable format that I could confidently share with family and friends. And so, I’m thrilled to say that very longing has been fulfilled with the publication of Edward’s work entitled Hell: A Final Word. The serious Bible student or academic can appreciate the content and format of The Fire That Consumes, while everyman can easily engage Hell: A Final Word. This is the volume many of us have been waiting for and it does not disappoint. Thank you Edward, and thank you, Lord!

The text of Hell: The Final Word is divided into quickly readable portions, the vast majority of the text (pp. 13-172) being divided into fifty-one chapters. There is no multitude of footnotes in this work as was the case with The Fire That Consumes. In fact, there are no footnotes at all, just twenty-four brief endnotes (pp. 187-188).

There is nothing left dangling or assumed in the reasoning presented. Every stone is turned over and considered and no stones are thrown. The argumentation is coherent and tight, linear and clear, without in any way being argumentative. Grace and graciousness is pervasive in all of Edward Fudge’s work and this book is by no means an exception. Indeed, it is not only a true pleasure to read but, unlike most detailed presentations of Biblical teaching I have seen, is truly “a page turner.”

I can find virtually nothing I dislike about this work. Perhaps I would rather have seen the quiz (pp. 177-186) serve as a tantalizing introduction instead of appearing as something like at appendix. This Q & A alone is worth the price of the book.

The inclusion of a handful of discussion questions every few chapters would have made this work all the more instantly adaptable to use in a small-group or Bible class context.

I would like to have seen references to other works aside from those of Fudge in the chapter entitled “For Further Study” (pp. 175-176), but those who truly want to delve into things deeper need only turn to The Fire That Consumes and will find more than ample references there.

And some of the people I intend to steer toward this book would likely prefer to do without the autobiographical aspects of the work and would rather the author just stick straight to the issue at hand. However, I see the autobiographical style as a tremendous plus, especially to those reading it who have a history in the religious heritage in which Edward Fudge and I are of a part (Churches of Christ).

In sum, this book, like Fudge’s earlier work, The Fire That Consumes, is first rate. It’s precisely the sort of book I will happily be steering people toward for a very long time to come. I can easily see it as a resource for a mini-series in Bible class or for sermons, too. I hope this book finds its way into the hands of a great many, both those who believe already and those who are yet to believe. Would that every Christian would read it.

In short, I say: may this book live long and prosper, and may the same hold true for its author.

this went thru my mind

Archaeology: Unless you’ve been in outer space you probably encountered in the news this week the report that “one of the largest and best-preserved collections of ancient sealed books has been discovered in a cave in Jordan and are believed to be some of the earliest Christian documents.” Don’t bother believing any of that “fair and balanced reporting” for a minute; it’s just more of the usual sensationalism that gets labeled as “news.” For the low down on what’s up you’d be well served to read Todd Bolen’s post Early Christian Lead Books Discovery: Some Problems. If you’re interested in reading still more, Larry Hurtado‘s posts entitled Other Views on the Lead Codices and More on the Lead Codices would be a good place to go. Hurtado is a highly respected New Testament scholar, particularly in the area in question (Christian origins and early Christianity). His “chill dude” and “this is all soooo bogus!” comments alone are worth the price of admission. Or hey, just cut to the chase and read over at PaleoJudaica exactly how we know they’re f-a-k-e.

Churches of Christ: I really like Mike Cope’s take on Ted Campbell’s post Why the Churches of Christ Were RightCampbell is a church history prof at SMU’s Perkins School of Theology.

Climate change: Merely mention the phrase “global warming” in most of the circles I frequent and you’ll instantly lose track of all the eye rolls you get in response. You’ll also risk going deaf from the sound of minds slamming shut. Let’s just say I’m living in the land of skepticism. However, I am a believer in global warming and believe we humans play a huge role in it. And now that you know such, you can understand why I like John Cook’s simple post How to Talk With Climate Change Skeptics.

Fasting: As appears to be the case, I’m finding virtually everything Richard Beck writes to be required reading. His post entitled True Fasting is certainly no exception. In fact, one of his posts regarding all of the ongoing hullabaloo regarding Rob Bell and the upheaval in the evangelical world concerning such is the best thing I’ve read on the matter.

Internet pornography: My sermon this coming Sunday morning at MoSt Church is from Matthew 5:27-30 and deals with the subject of lust. Powerfully relevant to that discussion is just how pervasive is Internet pornography in our digital age. Take a look at this infographic on the matter from 2010 and get on your knees and pray. Incidentally, I’ll be displaying the infographic via PowerPoint during the course of Sunday’s sermon.

Marriage: Trey Morgan‘s post entitled Nine Big Lies About Marriage is good, good stuff every couple would do well to read together. And along the lines of marriage and family, take a good look at Dale Hudson‘s four-part series of posts entitled Post Modern Family Ministry. Here are links to all four parts: 1, 2, 3 & 4).

Tony Campolo: I need only say his name. Whether you always agree or not with everything the man says, he is fearless in his stating matters and never fails to make you think, and I enjoy both of those qualities immensely. Join the enjoyment by reading Losing Faith: Life’s Questions and Why Christians Don’t Like Jesus.

War: Timothy Archer’s brief post entitled Deadly Mirage is worth your consideration. Katie at WIT penned a spot-on post when she wrote Who are the Soldiers of the Body of Christ? And what about doing what we’re doing now in Libya? I appreciate Rachel Held Evans’ transparency in her post Rachel, The Worst Pacifist. And is if often the case with outstanding posts, the comments that follow them are often filled with gems not to be overlooked. Such is the case with all three of these fine posts.

And just for fun: Stand on MoSt Church‘s front steps and you can see the ships going up and down the Houston Ship Channel not very far at all away. Which usually brings up the question, “I wonder where in this old word that ship came from or where she’s going?” Well, now we can know, and we can know, quite literally, globally. My good friend Bill Ehlig clued me in on MarineTraffic.com Imagine ships of every size (all the way down to tugs and yachts!) positioned in real time all over the earth and linked with photos and descriptions of such and you’ve got it. Fascinating stuff, and potentially addictive to all sea lovers.

Never stop reading. Never stop thinking. Never stop being open to growing in your awareness of what is. And never, ever stop being willing to change your mind.